Wars of Independence



Scottish Wars of Independence, 12961357. The name usually given to the
prolonged wars between English Footballbillsstore
and Scots after the death of Alexander III of Scotland in 1286. The death of his
heir Margaret ('the Maid of Norway') in 1290 left a number of 'competitors' for
the vacant throne, of whom the chief were John Balliol and Robert Bruce,
grandfather of the future Robert I; in 1292 Edward I, who claimed to be 'Lord
Superior of Scotland', awarded the crown to Balliol. Edward however was
determined to assert what he saw as his rights to overlordship; and Balliol
found it impossible to maintain the independence of his kingdom against this
pressure. In 1295 the Scottish nobles took power out of Balliol's hands, made an
alliance with Edward's enemy Philip IV of France, and prepared to defy Edward.
Bruce was rapidly crowned as Robert I, but as rapidly defeated twice, Arthur Moats NFL Jersey and by the end of 1306 was in hiding.
Edward however died on 7 July 1307, which gave the respite Robert needed. In the
next few years he gradually eliminated the English garrisons by a masterly
policy of guerrilla warfare. By the treaty of Edinburgh/ Northampton of 1328,
Robert I Bills Arthur Moats Jersey was formally recognized as king of
Scots, and his son and heir, the future David II, was married to Joanna of the
Tower, a sister of Edward III. The peace did not last. Robert I died in 1329,
when David was aged only 5. He encouraged the son of John Balliol, Edward
Balliol, to attempt to seize the throne; and the Scottish leaders were forced to
confront the invaders in battles, www.footballbillsstore.com/bills-arthur-moats-jersey-c-14.html
in which the English were twice victorious, at Dupplin Moor (1332) under Edward
Balliol, and at Halidon Hill (1333) under Edward III himself. Unfortunately, he
continued the policy of raids into England, in one of which he was captured in
1346 and remained a captive till 1357. This led to a renewed English occupation;
and parts of southern Scotland remained in English hands for a long time.
However, by 1357 Edward III agreed to David's release under ransom. Though the
treaty of Berwick ignored the real issues of Scottish independence, no further
attempts at subjection were made till the 1540s, so that the Wars of
Independence can be said to have ended with the treaty of 1357.
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